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Theorem List for Intuitionistic Logic Explorer - 6801-6900   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremenrer 6801 The equivalence relation for signed reals is an equivalence relation. Proposition 9-4.1 of [Gleason] p. 126. (Contributed by NM, 3-Sep-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Jul-2015.)
~R Er (P × P)

Theoremenreceq 6802 Equivalence class equality of positive fractions in terms of positive integers. (Contributed by NM, 29-Nov-1995.)
(((𝐴P𝐵P) ∧ (𝐶P𝐷P)) → ([⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩] ~R = [⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩] ~R ↔ (𝐴 +P 𝐷) = (𝐵 +P 𝐶)))

Theoremenrex 6803 The equivalence relation for signed reals exists. (Contributed by NM, 25-Jul-1995.)
~R ∈ V

Theoremltrelsr 6804 Signed real 'less than' is a relation on signed reals. (Contributed by NM, 14-Feb-1996.)
<R ⊆ (R × R)

((((𝐴P𝐵P) ∧ (𝐶P𝐷P)) ∧ ((𝐹P𝐺P) ∧ (𝑅P𝑆P))) → (((𝐴 +P 𝐷) = (𝐵 +P 𝐶) ∧ (𝐹 +P 𝑆) = (𝐺 +P 𝑅)) → ⟨(𝐴 +P 𝐹), (𝐵 +P 𝐺)⟩ ~R ⟨(𝐶 +P 𝑅), (𝐷 +P 𝑆)⟩))

Theoremmulcmpblnrlemg 6806 Lemma used in lemma showing compatibility of multiplication. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 1-Jan-2020.)
((((𝐴P𝐵P) ∧ (𝐶P𝐷P)) ∧ ((𝐹P𝐺P) ∧ (𝑅P𝑆P))) → (((𝐴 +P 𝐷) = (𝐵 +P 𝐶) ∧ (𝐹 +P 𝑆) = (𝐺 +P 𝑅)) → ((𝐷 ·P 𝐹) +P (((𝐴 ·P 𝐹) +P (𝐵 ·P 𝐺)) +P ((𝐶 ·P 𝑆) +P (𝐷 ·P 𝑅)))) = ((𝐷 ·P 𝐹) +P (((𝐴 ·P 𝐺) +P (𝐵 ·P 𝐹)) +P ((𝐶 ·P 𝑅) +P (𝐷 ·P 𝑆))))))

Theoremmulcmpblnr 6807 Lemma showing compatibility of multiplication. (Contributed by NM, 5-Sep-1995.)
((((𝐴P𝐵P) ∧ (𝐶P𝐷P)) ∧ ((𝐹P𝐺P) ∧ (𝑅P𝑆P))) → (((𝐴 +P 𝐷) = (𝐵 +P 𝐶) ∧ (𝐹 +P 𝑆) = (𝐺 +P 𝑅)) → ⟨((𝐴 ·P 𝐹) +P (𝐵 ·P 𝐺)), ((𝐴 ·P 𝐺) +P (𝐵 ·P 𝐹))⟩ ~R ⟨((𝐶 ·P 𝑅) +P (𝐷 ·P 𝑆)), ((𝐶 ·P 𝑆) +P (𝐷 ·P 𝑅))⟩))

Theoremprsrlem1 6808* Decomposing signed reals into positive reals. Lemma for addsrpr 6811 and mulsrpr 6812. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 30-Dec-2019.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ((P × P) / ~R ) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ((P × P) / ~R )) ∧ ((𝐴 = [⟨𝑤, 𝑣⟩] ~R𝐵 = [⟨𝑢, 𝑡⟩] ~R ) ∧ (𝐴 = [⟨𝑠, 𝑓⟩] ~R𝐵 = [⟨𝑔, ⟩] ~R ))) → ((((𝑤P𝑣P) ∧ (𝑠P𝑓P)) ∧ ((𝑢P𝑡P) ∧ (𝑔PP))) ∧ ((𝑤 +P 𝑓) = (𝑣 +P 𝑠) ∧ (𝑢 +P ) = (𝑡 +P 𝑔))))

Theoremaddsrmo 6809* There is at most one result from adding signed reals. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 30-Dec-2019.)
((𝐴 ∈ ((P × P) / ~R ) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ((P × P) / ~R )) → ∃*𝑧𝑤𝑣𝑢𝑡((𝐴 = [⟨𝑤, 𝑣⟩] ~R𝐵 = [⟨𝑢, 𝑡⟩] ~R ) ∧ 𝑧 = [⟨(𝑤 +P 𝑢), (𝑣 +P 𝑡)⟩] ~R ))

Theoremmulsrmo 6810* There is at most one result from multiplying signed reals. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 30-Dec-2019.)
((𝐴 ∈ ((P × P) / ~R ) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ((P × P) / ~R )) → ∃*𝑧𝑤𝑣𝑢𝑡((𝐴 = [⟨𝑤, 𝑣⟩] ~R𝐵 = [⟨𝑢, 𝑡⟩] ~R ) ∧ 𝑧 = [⟨((𝑤 ·P 𝑢) +P (𝑣 ·P 𝑡)), ((𝑤 ·P 𝑡) +P (𝑣 ·P 𝑢))⟩] ~R ))

Theoremaddsrpr 6811 Addition of signed reals in terms of positive reals. (Contributed by NM, 3-Sep-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(((𝐴P𝐵P) ∧ (𝐶P𝐷P)) → ([⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩] ~R +R [⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩] ~R ) = [⟨(𝐴 +P 𝐶), (𝐵 +P 𝐷)⟩] ~R )

Theoremmulsrpr 6812 Multiplication of signed reals in terms of positive reals. (Contributed by NM, 3-Sep-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(((𝐴P𝐵P) ∧ (𝐶P𝐷P)) → ([⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩] ~R ·R [⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩] ~R ) = [⟨((𝐴 ·P 𝐶) +P (𝐵 ·P 𝐷)), ((𝐴 ·P 𝐷) +P (𝐵 ·P 𝐶))⟩] ~R )

Theoremltsrprg 6813 Ordering of signed reals in terms of positive reals. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 2-Jan-2019.)
(((𝐴P𝐵P) ∧ (𝐶P𝐷P)) → ([⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩] ~R <R [⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩] ~R ↔ (𝐴 +P 𝐷)<P (𝐵 +P 𝐶)))

Theoremgt0srpr 6814 Greater than zero in terms of positive reals. (Contributed by NM, 13-May-1996.)
(0R <R [⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩] ~R𝐵<P 𝐴)

Theorem0nsr 6815 The empty set is not a signed real. (Contributed by NM, 25-Aug-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 10-Jul-2014.)
¬ ∅ ∈ R

Theorem0r 6816 The constant 0R is a signed real. (Contributed by NM, 9-Aug-1995.)
0RR

Theorem1sr 6817 The constant 1R is a signed real. (Contributed by NM, 9-Aug-1995.)
1RR

Theoremm1r 6818 The constant -1R is a signed real. (Contributed by NM, 9-Aug-1995.)
-1RR

Theoremaddclsr 6819 Closure of addition on signed reals. (Contributed by NM, 25-Jul-1995.)
((𝐴R𝐵R) → (𝐴 +R 𝐵) ∈ R)

Theoremmulclsr 6820 Closure of multiplication on signed reals. (Contributed by NM, 10-Aug-1995.)
((𝐴R𝐵R) → (𝐴 ·R 𝐵) ∈ R)

Theoremaddcomsrg 6821 Addition of signed reals is commutative. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 3-Jan-2020.)
((𝐴R𝐵R) → (𝐴 +R 𝐵) = (𝐵 +R 𝐴))

Theoremaddasssrg 6822 Addition of signed reals is associative. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 3-Jan-2020.)
((𝐴R𝐵R𝐶R) → ((𝐴 +R 𝐵) +R 𝐶) = (𝐴 +R (𝐵 +R 𝐶)))

Theoremmulcomsrg 6823 Multiplication of signed reals is commutative. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 3-Jan-2020.)
((𝐴R𝐵R) → (𝐴 ·R 𝐵) = (𝐵 ·R 𝐴))

Theoremmulasssrg 6824 Multiplication of signed reals is associative. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 3-Jan-2020.)
((𝐴R𝐵R𝐶R) → ((𝐴 ·R 𝐵) ·R 𝐶) = (𝐴 ·R (𝐵 ·R 𝐶)))

Theoremdistrsrg 6825 Multiplication of signed reals is distributive. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 4-Jan-2020.)
((𝐴R𝐵R𝐶R) → (𝐴 ·R (𝐵 +R 𝐶)) = ((𝐴 ·R 𝐵) +R (𝐴 ·R 𝐶)))

Theoremm1p1sr 6826 Minus one plus one is zero for signed reals. (Contributed by NM, 5-May-1996.)
(-1R +R 1R) = 0R

Theoremm1m1sr 6827 Minus one times minus one is plus one for signed reals. (Contributed by NM, 14-May-1996.)
(-1R ·R -1R) = 1R

Theoremlttrsr 6828* Signed real 'less than' is a transitive relation. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 4-Jan-2019.)
((𝑓R𝑔RR) → ((𝑓 <R 𝑔𝑔 <R ) → 𝑓 <R ))

Theoremltposr 6829 Signed real 'less than' is a partial order. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 4-Jan-2019.)
<R Po R

Theoremltsosr 6830 Signed real 'less than' is a strict ordering. (Contributed by NM, 19-Feb-1996.)
<R Or R

Theorem0lt1sr 6831 0 is less than 1 for signed reals. (Contributed by NM, 26-Mar-1996.)
0R <R 1R

Theorem1ne0sr 6832 1 and 0 are distinct for signed reals. (Contributed by NM, 26-Mar-1996.)
¬ 1R = 0R

Theorem0idsr 6833 The signed real number 0 is an identity element for addition of signed reals. (Contributed by NM, 10-Apr-1996.)
(𝐴R → (𝐴 +R 0R) = 𝐴)

Theorem1idsr 6834 1 is an identity element for multiplication. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 5-Jan-2020.)
(𝐴R → (𝐴 ·R 1R) = 𝐴)

Theorem00sr 6835 A signed real times 0 is 0. (Contributed by NM, 10-Apr-1996.)
(𝐴R → (𝐴 ·R 0R) = 0R)

Theoremltasrg 6836 Ordering property of addition. (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1996.)
((𝐴R𝐵R𝐶R) → (𝐴 <R 𝐵 ↔ (𝐶 +R 𝐴) <R (𝐶 +R 𝐵)))

Theorempn0sr 6837 A signed real plus its negative is zero. (Contributed by NM, 14-May-1996.)
(𝐴R → (𝐴 +R (𝐴 ·R -1R)) = 0R)

Theoremnegexsr 6838* Existence of negative signed real. Part of Proposition 9-4.3 of [Gleason] p. 126. (Contributed by NM, 2-May-1996.)
(𝐴R → ∃𝑥R (𝐴 +R 𝑥) = 0R)

Theoremrecexgt0sr 6839* The reciprocal of a positive signed real exists and is positive. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 6-Feb-2020.)
(0R <R 𝐴 → ∃𝑥R (0R <R 𝑥 ∧ (𝐴 ·R 𝑥) = 1R))

Theoremrecexsrlem 6840* The reciprocal of a positive signed real exists. Part of Proposition 9-4.3 of [Gleason] p. 126. (Contributed by NM, 15-May-1996.)
(0R <R 𝐴 → ∃𝑥R (𝐴 ·R 𝑥) = 1R)

Theoremaddgt0sr 6841 The sum of two positive signed reals is positive. (Contributed by NM, 14-May-1996.)
((0R <R 𝐴 ∧ 0R <R 𝐵) → 0R <R (𝐴 +R 𝐵))

Theoremltadd1sr 6842 Adding one to a signed real yields a larger signed real. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 7-Jul-2021.)
(𝐴R𝐴 <R (𝐴 +R 1R))

Theoremmulgt0sr 6843 The product of two positive signed reals is positive. (Contributed by NM, 13-May-1996.)
((0R <R 𝐴 ∧ 0R <R 𝐵) → 0R <R (𝐴 ·R 𝐵))

Theoremaptisr 6844 Apartness of signed reals is tight. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 29-Jan-2020.)
((𝐴R𝐵R ∧ ¬ (𝐴 <R 𝐵𝐵 <R 𝐴)) → 𝐴 = 𝐵)

Theoremmulextsr1lem 6845 Lemma for mulextsr1 6846. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 17-Feb-2020.)
(((𝑋P𝑌P) ∧ (𝑍P𝑊P) ∧ (𝑈P𝑉P)) → ((((𝑋 ·P 𝑈) +P (𝑌 ·P 𝑉)) +P ((𝑍 ·P 𝑉) +P (𝑊 ·P 𝑈)))<P (((𝑋 ·P 𝑉) +P (𝑌 ·P 𝑈)) +P ((𝑍 ·P 𝑈) +P (𝑊 ·P 𝑉))) → ((𝑋 +P 𝑊)<P (𝑌 +P 𝑍) ∨ (𝑍 +P 𝑌)<P (𝑊 +P 𝑋))))

Theoremmulextsr1 6846 Strong extensionality of multiplication of signed reals. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 18-Feb-2020.)
((𝐴R𝐵R𝐶R) → ((𝐴 ·R 𝐶) <R (𝐵 ·R 𝐶) → (𝐴 <R 𝐵𝐵 <R 𝐴)))

Theoremarchsr 6847* For any signed real, there is an integer that is greater than it. This is also known as the "archimedean property". The expression [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q [⟨𝑥, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q }, {𝑢 ∣ [⟨𝑥, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R is the embedding of the positive integer 𝑥 into the signed reals. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 23-Apr-2020.)
(𝐴R → ∃𝑥N 𝐴 <R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q [⟨𝑥, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q }, {𝑢 ∣ [⟨𝑥, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R )

Theoremsrpospr 6848* Mapping from a signed real greater than zero to a positive real. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 25-Jun-2021.)
((𝐴R ∧ 0R <R 𝐴) → ∃!𝑥P [⟨(𝑥 +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R = 𝐴)

Theoremprsrcl 6849 Mapping from a positive real to a signed real. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 25-Jun-2021.)
(𝐴P → [⟨(𝐴 +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~RR)

Theoremprsrpos 6850 Mapping from a positive real to a signed real yields a result greater than zero. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 25-Jun-2021.)
(𝐴P → 0R <R [⟨(𝐴 +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R )

((𝐴P𝐵P) → [⟨((𝐴 +P 𝐵) +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R = ([⟨(𝐴 +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R +R [⟨(𝐵 +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))

Theoremprsrlt 6852 Mapping from positive real ordering to signed real ordering. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 29-Jun-2021.)
((𝐴P𝐵P) → (𝐴<P 𝐵 ↔ [⟨(𝐴 +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R <R [⟨(𝐵 +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))

Theoremprsrriota 6853* Mapping a restricted iota from a positive real to a signed real. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 29-Jun-2021.)
((𝐴R ∧ 0R <R 𝐴) → [⟨((𝑥P [⟨(𝑥 +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R = 𝐴) +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R = 𝐴)

Theoremcaucvgsrlemcl 6854* Lemma for caucvgsr 6867. Terms of the sequence from caucvgsrlemgt1 6860 can be mapped to positive reals. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 2-Jul-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:NR)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑚N 1R <R (𝐹𝑚))       ((𝜑𝐴N) → (𝑦P (𝐹𝐴) = [⟨(𝑦 +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ) ∈ P)

Theoremcaucvgsrlemasr 6855* Lemma for caucvgsr 6867. The lower bound is a signed real. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 4-Jul-2021.)
(𝜑 → ∀𝑚N 𝐴 <R (𝐹𝑚))       (𝜑𝐴R)

Theoremcaucvgsrlemfv 6856* Lemma for caucvgsr 6867. Coercing sequence value from a positive real to a signed real. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 29-Jun-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:NR)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛N𝑘N (𝑛 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑛) <R ((𝐹𝑘) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) <R ((𝐹𝑛) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑚N 1R <R (𝐹𝑚))    &   𝐺 = (𝑥N ↦ (𝑦P (𝐹𝑥) = [⟨(𝑦 +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))       ((𝜑𝐴N) → [⟨((𝐺𝐴) +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R = (𝐹𝐴))

Theoremcaucvgsrlemf 6857* Lemma for caucvgsr 6867. Defining the sequence in terms of positive reals. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 23-Jun-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:NR)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛N𝑘N (𝑛 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑛) <R ((𝐹𝑘) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) <R ((𝐹𝑛) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑚N 1R <R (𝐹𝑚))    &   𝐺 = (𝑥N ↦ (𝑦P (𝐹𝑥) = [⟨(𝑦 +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))       (𝜑𝐺:NP)

Theoremcaucvgsrlemcau 6858* Lemma for caucvgsr 6867. Defining the Cauchy condition in terms of positive reals. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 23-Jun-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:NR)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛N𝑘N (𝑛 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑛) <R ((𝐹𝑘) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) <R ((𝐹𝑛) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑚N 1R <R (𝐹𝑚))    &   𝐺 = (𝑥N ↦ (𝑦P (𝐹𝑥) = [⟨(𝑦 +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))       (𝜑 → ∀𝑛N𝑘N (𝑛 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐺𝑛)<P ((𝐺𝑘) +P ⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩) ∧ (𝐺𝑘)<P ((𝐺𝑛) +P ⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩))))

Theoremcaucvgsrlembound 6859* Lemma for caucvgsr 6867. Defining the boundedness condition in terms of positive reals. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 25-Jun-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:NR)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛N𝑘N (𝑛 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑛) <R ((𝐹𝑘) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) <R ((𝐹𝑛) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑚N 1R <R (𝐹𝑚))    &   𝐺 = (𝑥N ↦ (𝑦P (𝐹𝑥) = [⟨(𝑦 +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))       (𝜑 → ∀𝑚N 1P<P (𝐺𝑚))

Theoremcaucvgsrlemgt1 6860* Lemma for caucvgsr 6867. A Cauchy sequence whose terms are greater than one converges. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 22-Jun-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:NR)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛N𝑘N (𝑛 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑛) <R ((𝐹𝑘) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) <R ((𝐹𝑛) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑚N 1R <R (𝐹𝑚))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦R𝑥R (0R <R 𝑥 → ∃𝑗N𝑖N (𝑗 <N 𝑖 → ((𝐹𝑖) <R (𝑦 +R 𝑥) ∧ 𝑦 <R ((𝐹𝑖) +R 𝑥)))))

Theoremcaucvgsrlemoffval 6861* Lemma for caucvgsr 6867. Offsetting the values of the sequence so they are greater than one. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 3-Jul-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:NR)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛N𝑘N (𝑛 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑛) <R ((𝐹𝑘) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) <R ((𝐹𝑛) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑚N 𝐴 <R (𝐹𝑚))    &   𝐺 = (𝑎N ↦ (((𝐹𝑎) +R 1R) +R (𝐴 ·R -1R)))       ((𝜑𝐽N) → ((𝐺𝐽) +R 𝐴) = ((𝐹𝐽) +R 1R))

Theoremcaucvgsrlemofff 6862* Lemma for caucvgsr 6867. Offsetting the values of the sequence so they are greater than one. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 3-Jul-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:NR)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛N𝑘N (𝑛 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑛) <R ((𝐹𝑘) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) <R ((𝐹𝑛) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑚N 𝐴 <R (𝐹𝑚))    &   𝐺 = (𝑎N ↦ (((𝐹𝑎) +R 1R) +R (𝐴 ·R -1R)))       (𝜑𝐺:NR)

Theoremcaucvgsrlemoffcau 6863* Lemma for caucvgsr 6867. Offsetting the values of the sequence so they are greater than one. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 3-Jul-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:NR)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛N𝑘N (𝑛 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑛) <R ((𝐹𝑘) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) <R ((𝐹𝑛) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑚N 𝐴 <R (𝐹𝑚))    &   𝐺 = (𝑎N ↦ (((𝐹𝑎) +R 1R) +R (𝐴 ·R -1R)))       (𝜑 → ∀𝑛N𝑘N (𝑛 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐺𝑛) <R ((𝐺𝑘) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ) ∧ (𝐺𝑘) <R ((𝐺𝑛) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))))

Theoremcaucvgsrlemoffgt1 6864* Lemma for caucvgsr 6867. Offsetting the values of the sequence so they are greater than one. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 3-Jul-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:NR)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛N𝑘N (𝑛 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑛) <R ((𝐹𝑘) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) <R ((𝐹𝑛) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑚N 𝐴 <R (𝐹𝑚))    &   𝐺 = (𝑎N ↦ (((𝐹𝑎) +R 1R) +R (𝐴 ·R -1R)))       (𝜑 → ∀𝑚N 1R <R (𝐺𝑚))

Theoremcaucvgsrlemoffres 6865* Lemma for caucvgsr 6867. Offsetting the values of the sequence so they are greater than one. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 3-Jul-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:NR)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛N𝑘N (𝑛 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑛) <R ((𝐹𝑘) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) <R ((𝐹𝑛) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑚N 𝐴 <R (𝐹𝑚))    &   𝐺 = (𝑎N ↦ (((𝐹𝑎) +R 1R) +R (𝐴 ·R -1R)))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦R𝑥R (0R <R 𝑥 → ∃𝑗N𝑘N (𝑗 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑘) <R (𝑦 +R 𝑥) ∧ 𝑦 <R ((𝐹𝑘) +R 𝑥)))))

Theoremcaucvgsrlembnd 6866* Lemma for caucvgsr 6867. A Cauchy sequence with a lower bound converges. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 19-Jun-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:NR)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛N𝑘N (𝑛 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑛) <R ((𝐹𝑘) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) <R ((𝐹𝑛) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑚N 𝐴 <R (𝐹𝑚))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦R𝑥R (0R <R 𝑥 → ∃𝑗N𝑘N (𝑗 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑘) <R (𝑦 +R 𝑥) ∧ 𝑦 <R ((𝐹𝑘) +R 𝑥)))))

Theoremcaucvgsr 6867* A Cauchy sequence of signed reals with a modulus of convergence converges to a signed real. This is basically Corollary 11.2.13 of [HoTT], p. (varies). The HoTT book theorem has a modulus of convergence (that is, a rate of convergence) specified by (11.2.9) in HoTT whereas this theorem fixes the rate of convergence to say that all terms after the nth term must be within 1 / 𝑛 of the nth term (it should later be able to prove versions of this theorem with a different fixed rate or a modulus of convergence supplied as a hypothesis).

This is similar to caucvgprpr 6791 but is for signed reals rather than positive reals.

Here is an outline of how we prove it:

1. Choose a lower bound for the sequence (see caucvgsrlembnd 6866).

2. Offset each element of the sequence so that each element of the resulting sequence is greater than one (greater than zero would not suffice, because the limit as well as the elements of the sequence need to be positive) (see caucvgsrlemofff 6862).

3. Since a signed real (element of R) which is greater than zero can be mapped to a positive real (element of P), perform that mapping on each element of the sequence and invoke caucvgprpr 6791 to get a limit (see caucvgsrlemgt1 6860).

4. Map the resulting limit from positive reals back to signed reals (see caucvgsrlemgt1 6860).

5. Offset that limit so that we get the limit of the original sequence rather than the limit of the offsetted sequence (see caucvgsrlemoffres 6865). (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 20-Jun-2021.)

(𝜑𝐹:NR)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛N𝑘N (𝑛 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑛) <R ((𝐹𝑘) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) <R ((𝐹𝑛) +R [⟨(⟨{𝑙𝑙 <Q (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q )}, {𝑢 ∣ (*Q‘[⟨𝑛, 1𝑜⟩] ~Q ) <Q 𝑢}⟩ +P 1P), 1P⟩] ~R ))))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦R𝑥R (0R <R 𝑥 → ∃𝑗N𝑘N (𝑗 <N 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑘) <R (𝑦 +R 𝑥) ∧ 𝑦 <R ((𝐹𝑘) +R 𝑥)))))

Syntaxcc 6868 Class of complex numbers.
class

Syntaxcr 6869 Class of real numbers.
class

Syntaxcc0 6870 Extend class notation to include the complex number 0.
class 0

Syntaxc1 6871 Extend class notation to include the complex number 1.
class 1

Syntaxci 6872 Extend class notation to include the complex number i.
class i

class +

Syntaxcltrr 6874 'Less than' predicate (defined over real subset of complex numbers).
class <

Syntaxcmul 6875 Multiplication on complex numbers. The token · is a center dot.
class ·

Definitiondf-c 6876 Define the set of complex numbers. (Contributed by NM, 22-Feb-1996.)
ℂ = (R × R)

Definitiondf-0 6877 Define the complex number 0. (Contributed by NM, 22-Feb-1996.)
0 = ⟨0R, 0R

Definitiondf-1 6878 Define the complex number 1. (Contributed by NM, 22-Feb-1996.)
1 = ⟨1R, 0R

Definitiondf-i 6879 Define the complex number i (the imaginary unit). (Contributed by NM, 22-Feb-1996.)
i = ⟨0R, 1R

Definitiondf-r 6880 Define the set of real numbers. (Contributed by NM, 22-Feb-1996.)
ℝ = (R × {0R})

+ = {⟨⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩, 𝑧⟩ ∣ ((𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝑦 ∈ ℂ) ∧ ∃𝑤𝑣𝑢𝑓((𝑥 = ⟨𝑤, 𝑣⟩ ∧ 𝑦 = ⟨𝑢, 𝑓⟩) ∧ 𝑧 = ⟨(𝑤 +R 𝑢), (𝑣 +R 𝑓)⟩))}

Definitiondf-mul 6882* Define multiplication over complex numbers. (Contributed by NM, 9-Aug-1995.)
· = {⟨⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩, 𝑧⟩ ∣ ((𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝑦 ∈ ℂ) ∧ ∃𝑤𝑣𝑢𝑓((𝑥 = ⟨𝑤, 𝑣⟩ ∧ 𝑦 = ⟨𝑢, 𝑓⟩) ∧ 𝑧 = ⟨((𝑤 ·R 𝑢) +R (-1R ·R (𝑣 ·R 𝑓))), ((𝑣 ·R 𝑢) +R (𝑤 ·R 𝑓))⟩))}

Definitiondf-lt 6883* Define 'less than' on the real subset of complex numbers. (Contributed by NM, 22-Feb-1996.)
< = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ ((𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑦 ∈ ℝ) ∧ ∃𝑧𝑤((𝑥 = ⟨𝑧, 0R⟩ ∧ 𝑦 = ⟨𝑤, 0R⟩) ∧ 𝑧 <R 𝑤))}

Theoremopelcn 6884 Ordered pair membership in the class of complex numbers. (Contributed by NM, 14-May-1996.)
(⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ ∈ ℂ ↔ (𝐴R𝐵R))

Theoremopelreal 6885 Ordered pair membership in class of real subset of complex numbers. (Contributed by NM, 22-Feb-1996.)
(⟨𝐴, 0R⟩ ∈ ℝ ↔ 𝐴R)

Theoremelreal 6886* Membership in class of real numbers. (Contributed by NM, 31-Mar-1996.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ ↔ ∃𝑥R𝑥, 0R⟩ = 𝐴)

Theoremelrealeu 6887* The real number mapping in elreal 6886 is unique. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 11-Jul-2021.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ ↔ ∃!𝑥R𝑥, 0R⟩ = 𝐴)

Theoremelreal2 6888 Ordered pair membership in the class of complex numbers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Jun-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ ↔ ((1st𝐴) ∈ R𝐴 = ⟨(1st𝐴), 0R⟩))

Theorem0ncn 6889 The empty set is not a complex number. Note: do not use this after the real number axioms are developed, since it is a construction-dependent property. (Contributed by NM, 2-May-1996.)
¬ ∅ ∈ ℂ

Theoremltrelre 6890 'Less than' is a relation on real numbers. (Contributed by NM, 22-Feb-1996.)
< ⊆ (ℝ × ℝ)

Theoremaddcnsr 6891 Addition of complex numbers in terms of signed reals. (Contributed by NM, 28-May-1995.)
(((𝐴R𝐵R) ∧ (𝐶R𝐷R)) → (⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ + ⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩) = ⟨(𝐴 +R 𝐶), (𝐵 +R 𝐷)⟩)

Theoremmulcnsr 6892 Multiplication of complex numbers in terms of signed reals. (Contributed by NM, 9-Aug-1995.)
(((𝐴R𝐵R) ∧ (𝐶R𝐷R)) → (⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ · ⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩) = ⟨((𝐴 ·R 𝐶) +R (-1R ·R (𝐵 ·R 𝐷))), ((𝐵 ·R 𝐶) +R (𝐴 ·R 𝐷))⟩)

Theoremeqresr 6893 Equality of real numbers in terms of intermediate signed reals. (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1996.)
𝐴 ∈ V       (⟨𝐴, 0R⟩ = ⟨𝐵, 0R⟩ ↔ 𝐴 = 𝐵)

Theoremaddresr 6894 Addition of real numbers in terms of intermediate signed reals. (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1996.)
((𝐴R𝐵R) → (⟨𝐴, 0R⟩ + ⟨𝐵, 0R⟩) = ⟨(𝐴 +R 𝐵), 0R⟩)

Theoremmulresr 6895 Multiplication of real numbers in terms of intermediate signed reals. (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1996.)
((𝐴R𝐵R) → (⟨𝐴, 0R⟩ · ⟨𝐵, 0R⟩) = ⟨(𝐴 ·R 𝐵), 0R⟩)

Theoremltresr 6896 Ordering of real subset of complex numbers in terms of signed reals. (Contributed by NM, 22-Feb-1996.)
(⟨𝐴, 0R⟩ <𝐵, 0R⟩ ↔ 𝐴 <R 𝐵)

Theoremltresr2 6897 Ordering of real subset of complex numbers in terms of signed reals. (Contributed by NM, 22-Feb-1996.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → (𝐴 < 𝐵 ↔ (1st𝐴) <R (1st𝐵)))

Theoremdfcnqs 6898 Technical trick to permit reuse of previous lemmas to prove arithmetic operation laws in from those in R. The trick involves qsid 6158, which shows that the coset of the converse epsilon relation (which is not an equivalence relation) acts as an identity divisor for the quotient set operation. This lets us "pretend" that is a quotient set, even though it is not (compare df-c 6876), and allows us to reuse some of the equivalence class lemmas we developed for the transition from positive reals to signed reals, etc. (Contributed by NM, 13-Aug-1995.)
ℂ = ((R × R) / E )

Theoremaddcnsrec 6899 Technical trick to permit re-use of some equivalence class lemmas for operation laws. See dfcnqs 6898 and mulcnsrec 6900. (Contributed by NM, 13-Aug-1995.)
(((𝐴R𝐵R) ∧ (𝐶R𝐷R)) → ([⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩] E + [⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩] E ) = [⟨(𝐴 +R 𝐶), (𝐵 +R 𝐷)⟩] E )

Theoremmulcnsrec 6900 Technical trick to permit re-use of some equivalence class lemmas for operation laws. The trick involves ecidg 6157, which shows that the coset of the converse epsilon relation (which is not an equivalence relation) leaves a set unchanged. See also dfcnqs 6898. (Contributed by NM, 13-Aug-1995.)
(((𝐴R𝐵R) ∧ (𝐶R𝐷R)) → ([⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩] E · [⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩] E ) = [⟨((𝐴 ·R 𝐶) +R (-1R ·R (𝐵 ·R 𝐷))), ((𝐵 ·R 𝐶) +R (𝐴 ·R 𝐷))⟩] E )

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