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Definition df-sb 1646
 Description: Define proper substitution. Remark 9.1 in [Megill] p. 447 (p. 15 of the preprint). For our notation, we use [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 to mean "the wff that results when 𝑦 is properly substituted for 𝑥 in the wff 𝜑." We can also use [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 in place of the "free for" side condition used in traditional predicate calculus; see, for example, stdpc4 1658. Our notation was introduced in Haskell B. Curry's Foundations of Mathematical Logic (1977), p. 316 and is frequently used in textbooks of lambda calculus and combinatory logic. This notation improves the common but ambiguous notation, "𝜑(𝑦) is the wff that results when 𝑦 is properly substituted for 𝑥 in 𝜑(𝑥)." For example, if the original 𝜑(𝑥) is 𝑥 = 𝑦, then 𝜑(𝑦) is 𝑦 = 𝑦, from which we obtain that 𝜑(𝑥) is 𝑥 = 𝑥. So what exactly does 𝜑(𝑥) mean? Curry's notation solves this problem. In most books, proper substitution has a somewhat complicated recursive definition with multiple cases based on the occurrences of free and bound variables in the wff. Instead, we use a single formula that is exactly equivalent and gives us a direct definition. We later prove that our definition has the properties we expect of proper substitution (see theorems sbequ 1721, sbcom2 1863 and sbid2v 1872). Note that our definition is valid even when 𝑥 and 𝑦 are replaced with the same variable, as sbid 1657 shows. We achieve this by having 𝑥 free in the first conjunct and bound in the second. We can also achieve this by using a dummy variable, as the alternate definition dfsb7 1867 shows (which some logicians may prefer because it doesn't mix free and bound variables). Another alternate definition which uses a dummy variable is dfsb7a 1870. When 𝑥 and 𝑦 are distinct, we can express proper substitution with the simpler expressions of sb5 1767 and sb6 1766. In classical logic, another possible definition is (𝑥 = 𝑦 ∧ 𝜑) ∨ ∀𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦 → 𝜑) but we do not have an intuitionistic proof that this is equivalent. There are no restrictions on any of the variables, including what variables may occur in wff 𝜑. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.)
Assertion
Ref Expression
df-sb ([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ ((𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑) ∧ ∃𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑)))

Detailed syntax breakdown of Definition df-sb
StepHypRef Expression
1 wph . . 3 wff 𝜑
2 vx . . 3 setvar 𝑥
3 vy . . 3 setvar 𝑦
41, 2, 3wsb 1645 . 2 wff [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑
52, 3weq 1392 . . . 4 wff 𝑥 = 𝑦
65, 1wi 4 . . 3 wff (𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑)
75, 1wa 97 . . . 4 wff (𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑)
87, 2wex 1381 . . 3 wff 𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑)
96, 8wa 97 . 2 wff ((𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑) ∧ ∃𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑))
104, 9wb 98 1 wff ([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ ((𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑) ∧ ∃𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑)))
 Colors of variables: wff set class This definition is referenced by:  sbimi  1647  sb1  1649  sb2  1650  sbequ1  1651  sbequ2  1652  drsb1  1680  spsbim  1724  sbequ8  1727  sbidm  1731  sb6  1766  hbsbv  1817
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